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Plos One : Candida Albicans Delays Hiv-1 Replication in MacRophages, Volume 8

By Poli, Guido

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Book Id: WPLBN0003944840
Format Type: PDF eBook :
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Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Plos One : Candida Albicans Delays Hiv-1 Replication in MacRophages, Volume 8  
Author: Poli, Guido
Volume: Volume 8
Language: English
Subject: Journals, Science, Medical Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary)
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Plos

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Poli, G. (n.d.). Plos One : Candida Albicans Delays Hiv-1 Replication in MacRophages, Volume 8. Retrieved from http://worldjournal.org/


Description
Description : Macrophages are one of the most important HIV-1 target cells. Unlike CD4+ T cells, macrophages are resistant to the cytophatic effect of HIV-1. They are able to produce and harbor the virus for long periods acting as a viral reservoir. Candida albicans (CA) is a commensal fungus that colonizes the portals of HIV-1 entry, such as the vagina and the rectum, and becomes an aggressive pathogen in AIDS patients. In this study, we analyzed the ability of CA to modulate the course of HIV-1 infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages. We found that CA abrogated HIV-1 replication in macrophages when it was evaluated 7 days after virus inoculation. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of HIV-1 production in macrophages revealed that CA efficiently sequesters HIV-1 particles avoiding its infectivity. Moreover, by acting on macrophages themselves, CA diminishes their permissibility to HIV-1 infection by reducing the expression of CD4, enhancing the production of the CCR5-interacting chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/RANTES, and stimulating the production of interferon-α and the restriction factors APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and tetherin. Interestingly, abrogation of HIV-1 replication was overcome when the infection of macrophages was evaluated 2-3 weeks after virus inoculation. However, this reactivation of HIV-1 infection could be silenced by CA when added periodically to HIV-1-challenged macrophages. The induction of a silent HIV-1 infection in macrophages at the periphery, where cells are continuously confronted with CA, might help HIV-1 to evade the immune response and to promote resistance to antiretroviral therapy.

 
 


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